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MUTNOVSKY VOLCANO

The volcano is an elongated array of four merged cones. Explosions which occurred in several stages, formed two huge crater – the Southwest and Northeast craters, they resemble a figure eight, stretching for 4 km. The diameter of the crater is 1.5 - 2 km and depth - 400 m. The subsequent explosions in Southwest crater formed a deep crater, before it was occupied by the lake, and now by the glacier. In addition, there is an Active Funnel at the northern edge of the Southwestern crater, which is a closed cup with the depth of about 150 m with steep walls, flat bottom, diameter of which is 100 x 150 m.

coordinates: N52.45932º, E158.16495º

The merged crater of Mutnovsky volcano by its size is the largest among the craters of active volcanoes of Kamchatka.

On the side facing the ocean, adjacent to the northern crater is the highest, but the supine cone, height - 2323 m. From the bay Russkaya it looks like a regular cone.

In the crater of the volcano and on its northern slope there are powerful high-temperature fumaroles, jets of steam and gas, the outputs of which are framed by volcanic sulfur and hot springs in the form of water and mud pots.

The most intense fumarolic activity is concentrated in the Northeast and active crater funnel. In the crater there are three groups of constantly active outputs - Top fumarole field, temperature of the fumaroles is more than 300 C, and two relatively isolated groups on Donne fumarole field with the temperatures of the outputs up to 150 C. Actively funnel most powerful gas activities are concentrated on the south-west wall.

During the historical period there were at least 16 eruptions of Mutnovsky volcano. The strongest eruption occurred in 1848. Periodicity in the eruptions was not observed. But the eruptions were separated by an interval of rest for about a year (1852-1854, 1916-1917, 1927-1928, 1938-1939). The greatest period of dormancy of the volcano lasted for 44 years (1854-1898), the smallest period - a few months. Eruptions mainly occur in the Active funnel. In the period of rest in the crater powerful high-temperature fumaroles are active.

The last two volcanic eruptions were phreatic (gas) and weak powered. The first eruption occurred on the night of December 31, 1960 to January 1, 1961 in the Active funnel. It had an explosive character. The second eruption occurred almost 40 years later, in 2000, under the south wall of the south-west of the crater of the volcano. When the eruption there was a formation of a hot mud flow that came down in the northeasterly direction to the Bottom fumarole field in the North-east crater. The flow length - 600 meters, width - 30-40 meters. In addition, Southwest crater lake was formed with a diameter of about 250 meters. By the end of the summer of 2002 the lake was almost completely under ice, indicating the termination of the thermal emission of the volcano through the Southwestern crater.

Interestingly, before the start of the 60s at the bottom of the crater there was a lake that had a diameter of 250-300 meters with warm water. After the eruption in 1960 in the Active funnel in the neighboring crater the lake cooled down, and then the crater quickly filled with glacier. Such mechanism is characteristic for the Southwestern crater.

Mutnovsky

Mutnovsky

Mutnovsky

Mutnovsky

Mutnovsky

Mutnovsky

Mutnovsky

Mutnovsky

Mutnovsky

Mutnovsky

Mutnovsky

Mutnovsky

Mutnovsky

Mutnovsky

Mutnovsky

Mutnovsky

Mutnovsky

Mutnovsky

Mutnovsky

Mutnovsky